Curriculum Vitae

(revised February 1998)


Professor of Economics, New York University

February 13, 1930, London, United Kingdom
Lived in Cape Town, South Africa, 1940-48

University of Cape Town, South Africa, 1947-48
University of London (External Student), 1950-51
Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, NY, 1952-54
New York University, 1954-57

B.A. summa cum laude, Brooklyn College, 1954
M.B.A. New York University, 1955
Ph.D. New York University, 1957

Academic Career
Graduate Assistant, New York University
Volker Fellow, New York University
Earhart Fellow, New York University
Lecturer, Brooklyn College
Assistant Professor, New York University
Associate Professor, New York University
Professor, New York University

Administrative Responsibilities
Acting Chairman, Joint Undergraduate Department of Economics, New York University
Executive Officer, All-University Department of Economics, New York University
Acting Chairman, Department of Economics, New York University


  1. BOOKS:

    1. The Economics Point of View (Van Nostrand, 1960)

      - reprinted, Sheed and Ward, 1976

      - Romanian translation published, 1996

    2. Market Theory and the Price System (Van Nostrand, 1963)

    3. An Essay on Capital (A. M. Kelley, 1966)

      - republished, see below (ix)

    4. Competition and Entrepreneurship (University of Chicago Press, 1973)

      - reprinted in paperback edition, 1978

      - Spanish translation published, 1975

      - German translation published, 1978

      - Japanese translation published, 1985

      - Portuguese translation published, 1986

      - Korean translation published, 1996

      - Italian translation published, 1997

    5. Perception, Opportunity and Profit: Studies in the Theory of Entrepreneurship (University of Chicago Press, 1979)

      - reprinted in paperback edition, 1983

      - German translation published, 1988

    6. Discovery and the Capitalist Process (University of Chicago Press, 1985)

    7. Discovery, Capitalism and Distributive Justice (Basil Blackwell, 1989)

      - Spanish translation published, 1995

    8. The Meaning of Market Process: Essays in the Development of Modern Austrian Economics (Routledge, 1992)

      - reprinted in paperback edition, 1996

    9. Essays on Capital and Interest: An Austrian Perspective (Edward Elgar, 1996) [includes a republished version of item (iii) above]

    10. How Markets Work: Disequilibrium, Entrepreneurship and Discovery (Institute of Economic Affairs, London, UK, 1997)

    1. Method, Process, and Austrian Economics: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von Mises (Lexington Books, 1982)

    2. Subjectivism, Intelligibility and Economic Understanding: Essays in Honor of Ludwig M. Lachmann on his Eightieth Birthday (New York University Press, 1986)
    3. Classics in Austrian Economics: A Sampling in the History of a Tradition (London: William Pickering, 1994), 3 volumes, with (three) introductions by the editor.


    1. "Rational Action and Economic Theory," Journal of Political Economy, (August 1962)

    2. "Rejoinder," Journal of Political Economy (February 1963)

    3. "The Premises of Growth Economics," New Individualist Review (Summer 1963)

    4. "What Economists Do," Southern Economic Journal (February 1965)

    5. "Divergent Approaches in Libertarian Economic Thought," Intercollegiate Review (January-February 1967)

    6. "Methodological Individualism, Market Equilibrium and Market Process," Il Politico (1967)

    7. "On Man-made Tightropes," National Review (February 27, 1968)

    8. "The 'Power' Problem on Campus," Intercollegiate Review (Spring 1970)

    9. "Entrepreneurship and the Market Approach to Development," in Toward Liberty (Essays in Honor of Ludwig von Mises), 1971

    10. "Advertising," Freeman (September 1972)

    11. "Tribute to Von Mises: On the Market," National Review (November 9, 1973)

    12. [Item (x) above, reprinted in T. Machan, editor, The Libertarian Alternative: Essays in Social and Political Philosophy (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1974)]

    13. "Capital, Competition, and Capitalism," in Champions of Freedom, Ludwig von Mises Lecture Series (Hillsdale College Press, 1974)

    14. "Producer, Entrepreneur, and the Right to Property," in S.L. Blumenfeld (editor) Property in a Humane Economy (Open Court, 1975)

    15. "Ludwig von Mises and the Theory of Capital and Interest," in L.S. Moss, editor, The Economics of Ludwig von Mises: Toward a Critical Reappraisal (Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1976)

    16. "On the Method of Austrian Economics," in E.G. Dolan, editor, The Foundations of Modern Austrian Economics (Kansas City: Sheed and Wad, 1976)

    17. "Philosophical and Ethical Implication of Austrian Economics," in Dolan, op. cit.

    18. "Equilibrium versus Market Process," in Dolan, op. cit.

    19. "The Theory of Capital, " in Dolan, op. cit.

    20. "Discussion" in The Economic System, in an Age of Discontinuity: Long Range Planning or Market Reliance? (New York University Press, 1976)

    21. "Foreword" to a new edition of L. Mises, The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science, An Essay on Method (Sheed, Andrews and McMeel, 1978)

    22. "Economics and Error," in L. Spadaro, editor, New Directions in Austrian Economics (Sheed, Andrews and McMeel, 1978)

    23. "The Entrepreneurial Role in Menger's System," Atlantic Economic Journal, September 1978

    24. "Entrepreneurship, Entitlement, and Economic Justice," Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1978

    25. [Item (xxiv) reprinted in J. Paul, editor, Reading Nozick: Essays on Anarchy, State and Utopia (Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1981)]

    26. "The Perils of Regulation: A Market Process Approach," Occasional Paper of the Law and Economics Center, University of Miami School of Law, February 1979
    27. "Entrepreneurship, Choice and Freedom, in ORDO, Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesselschaft, Band30 (Festgabe für F.A. Hayek), May 1979

    28. "X-Inefficiency, Error and the Scope for Entrepreneurship," in M. Rizzo, editor, editor, Time, Uncertainty and Disequilibrium: Explorations of Austrian Themes (Lexington Books, D.C. Heath, 1979)

    29. "The Primacy of Entrepreneurial Discovery," in Prime Mover of Progress, The Entrepreneur in Capitalism and Socialism (Institute of Economic Affairs, [Readings 23]: London, 1980)

    30. "The Morality of Capitalist Success," Culver-Stockton College, Canton, Missouri

    31. "Altruism, Social Responsibility, and the Market Economy," The Hillsdale Report, (Hillsdale College, 1972)

    32. "Policy Implications of Austrian Economics," in Journal of Economic Affairs [London, UK] , Vol. 1, No. 3

    33. "Uncertainty, Discovery, and Human Action: A Study of the Entrepreneurial Profile in the Misesian System," in Kirzner, editor, Method, Process and Austrian Economics: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von Mises (Lexington Books, 1982)

    34. "Mises and the Renaissance of Austrian Economics," in Homage to Mises: The First Hundred Years (Hillsdale College Press, 1981)

    35. "Mises on Entrepreneurship," in Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter (no. 4, 1981)

    36. "The 'Austrian' Perspective," Bell and Kristol, editors, The Crisis in Economic Theory (Basic Books, 1981)

    37. "The Theory of Entrepreneurship in Economic Growth," in Encylcopedia of Entrepreneurship (C.A. Kent, D.L. Sexton, K.H. Vesper, editors) [Prentice-Hall, 1982]

    38. "Entrepreneurship and the Future of Capitalism," in J. Backman, editor, Entrepreneurship and the Outlook for America (Free Press, 1983)

    39. "Entrepreneur and the Entrepreneurial Function: A Commentary," in J. Ronen, editor, Entrepreneurship: Where Did It Come From, and Where Is It Going? (Lexington Books, 1983)

    40. "Die zentrale Bedeutung unternehmerischen Entdecksens," in Zeitschrift für Wirtscxhaftspolitik, 1983 [translation of item (xxix)]

    41. "Incentives for Discovery," Economic Affairs, January 1984

    42. "Economic Planning and the Knowledge Problem," Cato Journal, vol. 4, No. 2, Fall 1984

    43. "Prices, the Communication of Knowledge, and the Discovery Process, " in Kurt R. Leube and Albert H. Zlabinger, editors, The Political Economy of Freedom: Essays in Honor of F.A. Hayek (Munich-Vienna: Philosophia Verlag, 1984)

    44. "The Entrepreneurial Process," in Calvin A. Kent, editor, The Environment for Entrepreneurship (Lexington Books, 1984)

    45. "Must Capitalism Yield to Socialism?", Economic Affairs, April-June, 1985

    46. "Comment on R.N. Langois, 'From the Knowledge of Economics to the Economics of Knowledge: Fritz Machlup on Methodology and on the "Knowledge Society,"'" in Warren Samuels, editor, Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology, vol. 3, 1985 [JAI Press]

    47. "Another Look at the Subjectivism of Costs," in Kirzner, editor, Subjectivism, Intelligibility and Economic Understanding, (New York: New York University Press, 1986)

    48. "The Open-Endedness of Knowledge: Its Role in the F.E.E. Formula," Freeman, March 1986

    49. "Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek: The Modern Extension of Austrian Subjectivism," in Norbert Leser, editor, Die Weiner Schule der Nationalökonomie (Vienna and Colgne and Graz: Herman Bohlaus, 1986)

    50. "Roundaboutness, Opportunity and Austrian Economics," in Martin J. Andersen, editor, The Unfinished Agenda, London, Institute of Economic Affairs, 1986

    51. "Individualistic Capitalism," in Donna C. Charron, editor, Views on Individualism, (St. Louis: St. Louis Humanities Forum, 1986)

    52. "Entrepreneurship and American Competitiveness," in S.M. Butler and W.J. Dennis, editors, Entrepreneurship: The Key to Economic Growth, (Heritage Foundation and National Federation of Independent Business)

    53. "Taxes and Discovery: An Entrepreneurial Perspective," in Dwight R. Lee, editor, Taxation and the Deficit Economy: Fiscal Policy and Capital Formation in the U.S. (San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute, 1986)

    54. "Unternehmer: Finder von Beruf," in Wirtschaftswoche, January 9th, 1987 [translated from English version written expressly for the occasion].

    55. "The Economics of Errant Entrepreneurship," Freeman, (August 1987)

    56. "The Economic Calculation Debate: Lessons for Austrians," in Review of Austrian Economics, Rothbard and Block, editors, Ludwid von Mises Institute and Lexington Books, 1987

    57. "Spontaneous Order and the Case for the Free Market," in Ideas on Liberty: Essays in Honor of Paul L. Poirot (Irvington-on-Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education, 1987)

    58. "The Austrian School of Economics," in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 1987

    59. "Friedrich Hayek" [co-authored with Roger L. Garrison], in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 1987

    60. "Economic Harmony," in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 1987

    61. "Advertising in an Open-Ended Universe," Foreword to Robert B. Ekelund, Jr. and Daniel S. Saurman, Advertising and the Market Process (San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute, 1988)

    62. "Welfare Economics: A Modern Austrian Perspective," in W. Block and L.H. Rockwell, editors, Man, Economy and Liberty: Essays in Honor of Rothbard (Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1988)

    63. "Some Ethical Implications for Capitalism of the Socialist Calculation Debate," Social Philosophy and Policy, Vol. 6, Issue 1, Autumn 1988

    64. "The Use of Labels in Doctrinal History: Comment on Baird," Cato Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Spring/Summer 1989)

    65. "Menger, Classical Liberalism, and the Austrian School of Economics," in Bruce Caldwell, editor, Carl Menger and his Legacy in Economics (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1990)

    66. "The Meaning of Market Process," in A. Bosch, P. Koslowski, and R. Veit, editors, General Equilibrium or Market Process: Neoclassical and Austrian Theories of Economics (Tubingen, J. C. B. Mohr, 1990)

    67. "The Market Process: An Austrian View," in K. Groenveld, J.A.M. Maks, and J. Muysken, editors, Economic Policy and the Market Process, Austrian and Mainstream Economics

    68. "Carl Menger und die subjectivistische Tradition in der Ökonomie" (translated from original English text contributed expressly for this volume) in Horst Claus Recktenwald, editor, Carl Mengers wegwisendes Werk (Düsseldorf: Verlag Wirtschaft und Finanzen GMBM, 1990)

    69. "Commentary," [on S. Boehm, "The Austrian Tradition: Schumpeter and Mises"] in Klaus Hennings and Warren J. Samuels, editor, Neoclassical Economic Theory, 1870-1930 (Boston, Dordrecht, London: Kluwer, 1990)

    70. "Self-Interest and the New Bashing of Economics," Critical Review, Vol. 4, Number 1, Winter-Spring 1990

    71. "Knowledge Problems and Their Solutions: Some Relevant Distinctions," Cultural Dynamics, Vol. III, no. 1, 1990

    72. "Discovery, Private Property, and the Theory of Justice in Capitalist Society," in Journal des Economistes et des Études Humaines, (Vol. 1, No. 3) October 1990

    73. "Human Action, Freedom, and Economic Science," in J. W. Robbins and M. Spangler, editors, A Man of Principle, Essays in Honor of Hans F. Sennholz (Grove City College press, 1992)

    74. "Subjectivism, Freedom, and Economic Law: Ludwig Lachmann Memorial Lecture," South African Journal of Economics, Vol. 60 (1), March 1992

    75. "Friedrich A. Hayek, 1899-1992" [Obituary essay], Critical Review, Vol. 5, No. 4, Fall 1991

    76. "The Ugly Market," Freeman, December 1974

    77. Item (lxxvi) reprinted in M.W. Hendrickson, editor, The Morality of Capitalism (Irvington-on-Hudson, NY, Foundation for Economic Education, 1992)

    78. "The Pure Time Preference Theory of Interest: An Attempt at Clarification," in The Meaning of Ludwig von Mises (Jeffrey M. Herbener, editor), Praxeology Press of the Ludwid von Mises Institute and Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993

    79. "Ludwig M. Lachmann" [Obituary article] Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines

    80. "Entrepreneurship, Uncertainty and Austrian Economics," in Bruce J. Caldwell and Stephen Boehm, editors, Austrian Economics: Tensions and New Directions (Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publshers, 1992)

    81. "The Morality of Pure Profit: The Logic and Illogic of a Popular Phobia," Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, vol. 4, No. 2/3

    82. "The Limits of the Market: The Real and the Imagined," in Markwirtscgaft und Rechtsordnung (W. Moschel, M. E. Streit, and U. Witt, editors, Baden-Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschafts, 1994)

    83. "Il Profitto e la sua etica/Logica e illogica di una fobia diffusa" (translation of item [lxxxi]) in Biblioteca della liberta, January-March 1994

    84. Reprinting of item (lxx) in S. Zamagni, editor, The Economics of Altruism (Edward Elgar)

    85. "On The Economics of Time and Ignorance" in P. J. Boettke and D. L. Prychitko, editors, The Market Process, Essays in Contemporary Austrian Economics (Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar, 1994)

    86. "A Tale of Two Worlds: Comment on Shmanske," in Boettke and Rizzo, editors, Advances in Austrian Economics, volume 1, JAI Press, 1994

    87. "The Entrepreneur in Economic Theory," in E. Dahmen, Leslie Hannah, and Israel M. Kirzner, The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship (Institute of Economic Research, Lund University, Sweden, 1994)

    88. "The Ethics of Competition," in H. Siebert, editor, The Ethical Foundation of the Market Economy (Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1994)

    89. "Entrepreneurship," in P. J. Boettke, editor, The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics, Edward Elgar, 1994

    90. "Value-freedom," in P. J. Boettke, editor, The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics, Edward Elgar, 1994

    91. "The Nature of Profits: Some Economic Insights and their Ethical Implications," in R. Cowan and Mario J. Rizzo, editors, Profits and Morality (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1995)

    92. "The Subjectivism of Austrian Economics," in Gerrit Meijer, editor, New Perspectives on Austrian Economics (London and New York: Routledge, 1995)

    93. "Fifty Years of FEE - Fifty Years of Progress in Austrian Economics," Freeman, vol. 46, no. 5

    94. "Government Regulation and the Market Discovery Process," in K. R. Leube, ediotr, Die Osterreichische Schule der Nationalokonomie Texte-Band 2, Von Hayek Bis White (International Library of Austrian Economics), Manzsche Verlags - and Universitätsbuchhandlung, Wien, 1996 [republication of an earlier paper]

    95. "Reflections on the Misesian Legacy in Economics," Review of Austrian Economics, Vol, 9, No. 2, 1996

    96. Item (xciii) translated in Spanish (Centro de Estudios Economico-Sociales, Guatemala, 1996)

    97. Item (xciii) translated in Portuguese (Instituto Liberal De Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1996)

    98. "Entrepreneurial Discovery and the Competitive Market Process: An Austrian Approach," Journal of Economic Literature (March 1997)

    99. "Austrian Economics and Mainstream Economics, 1930-1950: A Study in Doctrinal Complementarity and Substitutability," in K. Leube, A. M. Petroni, and J. Sadowsky, ediotrs, An Austrian in France, Festschrift in Honour of Jacques Garello (Torino: La Rosa Editrice, 1997)

    100. "The Crisis of Vision in Modern Economic Thought: An Austrian Economist's Perspective," Advances in Austrian Economics, Vol. 4, 1997

    101. "The Driving Force of the Market: The Idea of 'Competition' in Contemporary Economic Theory and in the Austrian Theory of the Market Process," in Richard M. Ebeling, editor, Austrian Economics: Perspectives on the Past and Prospects for the Future, (Hillsdale College Press, 1991)

    102. Item (ci), reprinted in David L. Prychitko, editor, Why Economists Disagree: An Introduction to the Alternative Schools of Thought (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988)


    1. H. W. Briefs, Three Views of Method in Economics, in Journal of Political Economy (December 1963)

    2. R. L. Smyth, editor, Essays in Economic Method, in Journal of Political Economy (February 1964)

    3. G. L. S. Shackle, The Nature of Economic Thought, in Journal of Business (April 1967)

    4. D. Dewey, Imperfect Competition, A Radical Interpretation, in Journal of Business (October 1970)

    5. H. Manne, editor, Economic Policy and the Regulation of Corporate Securities, in Journal of Business (October 1971)

    6. Yale Brozen, editor, Advertising and Society, in Reason (November 1975)

    7. J. R. Hicks, Capital and Time, A Neo-Austrian Theory, and J. R. Hicks and W. Weber, editors, Carl Menger and the Austrian School of Economics, in Libertarian Review (November 1975)

    8. J. W. Markham, Conglomerate Enterprise and Public Policy and J. F. Winslow, Conglomerate Unlimited: The Failure of Regulation, in American Political Science Review (March 1977)

    9. J. K. Galbraith, The Age of Uncertainty, in Libertarian Review (September 1977)

    10. L. Mises, On the Manipulation of Money and Credit, in Reason (April 1979)

    11. F. A. Fetter, Capital, Interest and Rent: Essays in the Theory of Distribution, edited, with an Introduction, by M. N. Rothbard, in Austrian Economics Newsletter, Spring 1980

    12. B. M. Friedman, editor, New Challenges to the Role of Profit, in Public Choice, Vol. 35/3

    13. H. Lepage, Tomorrow, Capitalism: The Economics of Economic Freedom, in Inquiry (April 1983)

    14. G. J. Stigler, The Economist as Preacher and Other Essays, in Inquiry (April 1983)

    15. D. H. Hausman, Capital, Profits and Prices: An Essay in the Philosophy of Economics, in International Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. XXIII, No. 2, Issue #90

    16. R. Hébert and A. Link, The Entrepreneur, in Southern Economic Journal (October 1983)

    17. H. Frisch , editor, Schumpeterian Economics, in Journal of Economic Literature (December 1983)

    18. M. Blaug, The Methodology of Economics, or How Economics Explain, in Austrian Economics Newsletter (Spring 1984)

    19. G. Gilder, The Spirit of Enterprise, in Reason (April 1985)

    20. Albert O. Hirschman. Rival Views of Market Society and other Recent Essays, in Reason (August-September 1987)

    21. M. Currie and I. Steedman, Wrestling with Time: Problems in Economic Theory, in Southern Economic Journal

    22. Mark Skousen, The Structure of Production, in Journal of Economic Literature (December 1991)

    23. Bettina B. Greaves and Robert W. McGee, Mises, An Annotated Bibliography: A Comprehensive Listing of Books and Articles by and about Ludwig Von Mises, in Freeman (November 1993)

    24. Stavros Ioannides, The Market, Competition and Democracy: A Critique of Neo-Austrian Economics, in Freeman (January 1994)

    25. Roy Cordato, Welfare Economics and Externalities in an Open-Ended Universe: A Modern Austrian Perspective, in Cato Journal, Vol. 13, No. L, (Spring/Summer 1993)

    26. Brigitte Berger, editor, The Culture of Entrepreneurship, in P. J. Boettke and M. J. Rizzo, editors, Advances in Austrian Economics, Vol. 1, 1994

    27. Jack Birner and Rudy Van Zijp, editors, Hayek, Co-ordination and Evolution, His Legacy in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and The History of Ideas, in Southern Economic Journal (April 1995)

    28. F. A. Hayek, Hayek and Hayek, An Autobiographical Dialogue, edited by Stephen Kresge and Leif Wenar, in Economic Affairs, Vol. 15, No. 2

    29. Christian Schmidt, editor, Uncertainty in Economic Thought, in Southern Economic Journal (July 1997)

    30. Klaus H. Hennings, The Austrian Theory of Value and Capital: Studies in the Life and Work of Eugen Von Böhm-Bawerk, in Economic Affairs, Journal of the Institute of Economic Affairs (December 1997)

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